• parallel kinematics machine
  • innovative Cartesian robot
  • platform of pure translation
  • impedance control


I.Ca.Ro. (Innovative Cartesian Robot) is the prototype of an innovative parallel kinematics robot developed by the Machine Mechanics Group. The robot kinematics provides the mobile platform with three degrees of freedom of pure translation. This feature is of great interest for a wide range of applications. One of the most interesting performance is the thrust of 4300 N that the robot can develop downwards in a vertical direction, whereas in the same direction the maximum speed and acceleration are respectively 1.06 m/s and 9 g. The control system is implemented on a dSPACE board: a PID position control currently allows to drive the robot end-effector along desired trajectories, whereas an active impedance control allows an interaction of the manipulator with the external environment.

Prototype of the I.Ca.Ro robot: the robot frame has a shape that allowed to perform experiments on the interaction of the robot with other kinematic machines with reduced mobility.

Prototype of a collaborative system with six degrees of freedom: I.Ca.Ro. performs tasks of pure translation within a workspace where Sphe.I. Ro. changes the orientation of a generic object with spherical motion.

High frame rate camera used for visual control of the I.Ca.Ro. robot in an eye-in-hand configuration (the workspace is directly seen from the robot end-effector).


  • Callegari, M., Palpacelli, M., Scarponi, M. Kinematics of the 3-CPU parallel manipulator assembled for motions of pure translation (2005) Proceedings – IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005, art. no. 1570736, pp. 4020-4025.
  • Carbonari, L., Battistelli, M., Callegari, M., Palpacelli, M.-C. Dynamic modelling of a 3-CPU parallel robot via screw theory (2013) Mechanical Sciences, 4 (1), pp. 185-197.
  • Palmieri, G., Martarelli, M., Palpacelli, M.C., Carbonari, L. Configuration-dependent modal analysis of a Cartesian parallel kinematics manipulator: Numerical modeling and experimental validation (2014) Meccanica, 49 (4), pp. 961-972.
  • Carbonari, L. Simplified approach for dynamics estimation of a minor mobility parallel robot (2015) Mechatronics, 30, pp. 76-84.